The purpose of interior decoration is to make our home livable by enhancing the appearance of interiors by combining beauty and functionalism. It gives scope to the homemaker and other members to express their personality, aesthetic taste through proper selection of furniture, furnishings and accessories.
A major portion of our time is spent at home, and thoughtfully decorated home should provide the needed comfort. pleasant surroundings. Furnishing a home needs careful selection of furnishing items, furniture and accessories which are durable aesthetically beautiful, functionally suitable and comfortable, and not merely decorative. The furniture also must be arranged skillfully by making proper use of available space, and providing for various activities. One need not think that interior decoration is possible only with large expenditure of money. It is possible with moderate expenditure when careful planning and thinking is done before rushing to acquire objects for decoration. There are variety of furnishings and decorative objects available. All of us have natural ability to recognize beauty and we must use this in creating beautiful home environment.Along with our ability if proper guidelines are also available to us about use of aesthetics it will be even better.
These guidelines can be acquired through basic information on Elements and Principles of Design. Almost all problems or ideas of interior decoration are related to design.
A design refers to any arrangement of lines, forms, colors and textures . A good design should have an orderly arrangement of the materials used and create beauty in the finished product. Designs can be either structural and or decorative. Structural design is the design made by size, form color and texture of an object whereas the decorative design is the surface enrichment of a structural design.
A good structural design should be functional in the sense it should be suitable for the purpose for which it is made. For instance design of a chair will be functional if it provides comfort to the user, and does not give backache. if a chair With beautifully carved pattern on the arms and the chair back, dogs not provide comfort to the user will result into a bad design.
Design of any object should be simple well proportioned. It should be suited to the material of which it is made, and its surface decoration should be moderate enough to strengthen the shape and beauty of the object.
The selection of, objects of decoration is an art. As consumers we should have knowledge of art quality. Choices made with consideration for beauty and utility are always desirable to make our lives comfortable. Hence the application of the elements of design and principles of design are basic to the art of interior decoration.
Elements of Art
The basic art elements include Line, Form, texture and color,
Line has three dimensions the length, with many directions, the width or thickness also may vary. All lines can move in vertical, horizontal and diagonal direction or a combination of any of these.
All lines fall into the category of straight, curved, or combination of these two. Such as zigzag line, a wavy line, scalloped line.
Lines may be thick, thin long or short, fuzzy or smooth.
Lines create certain emotional effects: vertical lines suggest dignity, horizontal repose or rest; zigzag, excitement, diagonal lines movement; curved ones gracefulness and transition.
In design, structural lines are used to define shape, to form pattern and to create Optical illusion, e.g. vertical lines suggest height, horizontal lines add apparent width. Combination of various types of lines are used for decorative effect.
When lines drawn in different directions meet at some common points resulting into two or three dimensional areas or masses,is termed shape or form, c.g., a triangular, square, oval shape.
Shapes are mostly the flat enclosures of space. Wheres! form includes a volume surrounded by limiting factors. Shape and forms enable us to judged the size of objects.
The texture is the tactile surface quality of material which may be felt when we touch the material or object, or may be identified through visual examination. The textures in which surface quality can be felt by touch is the Actual texture of the material, e.g., rough texture of a coarse fabric or smooth texture of a polished surface. Any material which reveals a textural pattern when observed without touching, it is called visual texture of the object, e.g., polished stone, coir or jute mats.
Texture is important because it affects us physically, e g. a rough shawl will irritate us when draped around. Textures affect reflection of light around us, e.g, a polished metal or table surface will reflect light brilliantly, and may also cause glare, whereas rough textured brick may absorb light and make the interior darker.
Texture also affects maintenance of our furnishings, e.g., smooth polished metals are easy to clean but show stain whereas rough, or rugs with high pile call less attention to foreign matter.
It is another important element, because organization of space indoors outdoors, or in any art problem will result into good or poor aesthetic approach.
Colour is a very important element of art. To enjoy colours around us one needs to develop ability to use colours beautifully and form the proper colour judgement. In interior decoration, many problems deal with colour in light and vision.
Colour has three qualities:
Hue: indicates the name of the colour, e.g., red, blue, etc.
Value: indicates the lightness and darkness of colours expressed in terms tint and shade respectively. For instance pink is the tin! of red and maroon is the shade of red colour.
Intensity: refers to the brightness and dullness of colour.
The value of colour is changed to lightness by adding white and to darkness by adding black. The colours can he made bright by adding more colour and doll by diluting the Colour or adding grey or browns.
Colours are classified as Primary, c.g. red, yellow and blue; secondary, c.g. orange, purple and green. Most of the colour or schemes are based on various combinations of the primary. secondary and also intermediate colours which are created by combining pairs of adjoining a primary and secondary.
Colours also have important quality of producing of warmth or coolness, advancing and receding effects, heaviness or lightness of objects
Reds and yellows create a feeling of warmth, are advancing in space and hence known as warm and advancing colours Blues and green are associated with water, sky etc, hence create cool effect, and receding effects.
Such qualities of colours are made use of in creating colourschcmes, in the interior decoration.
Principles of Design
Principles of design help us to adjudge any arrangement, design or an object ‘r terms of its aesthetic beauty and also create a sensitivity to appreciation of beauty. There are five major principles of design or art namely: Proportion, Balance, Emphasis, Rhythm and Harmony.
This principle underlies all the Other principles. This principle is also called as Law of Relationship” because it states that the relation between parts of an object or between objects of the same group should be satisfying.
Good proportions are established by using certain dimensions in the use of space. “The Greek oblong” is a standard of good proportions is also called as “the golden section“. This oblong always uses the ratio of 2 : 3 or 3 : 5 in case of flat surfaces, and 5 : 7 :11 in use of solids.
These ratios are useful in deciding any space division or arrangement, sizes of objects or decorative designs.
In judging the relationship of objects in a group or parts of a structural design usually “‘the scale” which is another dimension of proportion is used. We try to achieve good proportions in buildings furniture etc, by judging the objects and their relationship to the human dimensions. By doing this we can achieve the functionalism of the objects meant for our use.
In interior decoration balance plays a vet)’ important role. Balance in creating a feeling of repose of ml by arranging or grouping shapes and colours around is central point in such a way that the arrangement results into equalization of weights or attraction on each side of the central point
There are two ways of creating balance. Formal balance results, when either identical objects or objects of equal visual attractions are placed at equal distance from the central point the resulting balance is termed as either symmetrical or obvious balance respectively.
Informal balance also termed as asymmetrical or occult results when objects of unequal weights are arranged at different distance away from the central point. Larger object or heavy objects are placed closer to the central point and smaller or light weight objects are placed away from the center.
Principle of balance is used in furniture arrangement flower arrangement etc, to arrive at an arrangement which provides restful feeling to the interiors and the viewers of art objects.
This principle enables us to create a center of interest in any arrangement by emphasizing special features in order of their importance. In any arrangement we have to know what to emphasize, how to emphasize, hank much to emphasize, and where to place emphasis.
What to emphasize: Background should be less consequences than the objects to be seen against them.
How to emphasize: There are several ways (a) by placing or grouping of objects (b) by using contrast of colour (c) by using decoration. (d) by leaving incision space as background around an objects.
How much to emphasize: usually the simplicity and restraints should be the aim, and avoid over decoration
Where to emphasize: The center of interest may be located exactly at the mechanical center of the given space when objects are Viewed in a horizontal plane, e.g. furniture arrangement.Whereas in a vertical plane the point of emphasis should be located slightly above the mechanical center, e.g. placement of pictures on a wall, or in a frame.
Rhythm: This principle is based on the movement of the eye in viewing a design. It is defined as a related movement. An eye should travel in an easy connected path as created by I lines, forms or colours in a design.
The rhythmic movement may be obtained through (a) repetition of shapes, (b) progression of sizes. (c) an easily connected or a continuous line movement. In interior design folds of curtain, or line created by furniture arrangement, l picture arrangements etc. suggest the rhythmic movements.
It is the principle which produces impression of unity through the selection and arrangement of consistent ‘ objects and ideas. All objects in a group have a family resemblance, the arrangement will result into harmony (see Fig. 13 6) l The likeness among the objects creates a feeling of unity and a variety or contrast creates by breaking monotony, Harmony can be created by using similar lines, shapes, sizes textures and colours. Monotony developed by too much h repetition should be always be relief ed by using contrasts in proportionate amounts